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Personal income is the amount received by individuals and households from all sources, including wages and salaries, state benefits, tax credits, pensions and investments. Personal wealth is the value of individual and household assets, including property, financial, physical and pension assets.

Publications

Annual Pension Contributions by Contribution Type
Department: HM Revenue and Customs
Provides information on the value of contributions to personal pensions by status, age, gender, and place of residence of scheme member (PEN3,4,5). Previously listed under 'Revenue-based Taxes and Benefits: Pensions'.
Approved Pension Schemes: Cost of Tax Relief
Department: HM Revenue and Customs
Provides estimates of the cost of tax relief in respect of employer and individual contributions to personal and occupational non-State registered pension schemes (PEN 6). Previously listed under 'Revenue-based Taxes and Benefits: Pensions'.
Atlas of Deprivation: England
Department: Office for National Statistics
The Indices of Multiple Deprivation for England combine a number of areas, chosen to cover a range of economic, social and housing issues into a single deprivation score for each Lower Layer Super Output Area in England. The Atlas of Deprivation allows a map visualisation of the overall LSOA deprivation score (rank) and the score (rank) for each of the seven domains by local authority.
Child Trust Funds
Department: HM Revenue and Customs
Provides information on Child Trust Fund accounts opened for children born between 1 September 2002 and 2 January 2011. Previously listed under 'Revenue-based Taxes and Benefits: Child Trust Funds'.
Comparison of UK and EU at-risk-of-poverty rates
Department: Office for National Statistics
Compares the at-risk-of-poverty rates for the UK and EU between 2005 and 2010.
Contributions to Personal Pensions
Department: HM Revenue and Customs
Provides information on the value of contributions to personal pensions by type of arrangement, and whether stakeholder or non-stakeholder (PEN 2). Previously listed under 'Revenue-based Taxes and Benefits: Pensions'.
Employee Share Schemes
Department: HM Revenue and Customs
Statistics on the tax-advantaged employee share schemes, including the numbers of schemes and companies using schemes, numbers of companies granting and employees receiving awards, values awarded, numbers of employees exercising options and estimates of the value of the Income Tax and National Insurance relief received. Previously listed under 'Revenue-based Taxes and Benefits: Employee Share Schemes'.
Enterprise Investment Scheme
Department: HM Revenue and Customs
Provides information on the number of companies raising funds, number of subscriptions and amounts raised through Enterprise Investment Schemes. Provides breakdown of the number of companies and amount of investment based on geographical region, industry type and size of investment. Previously listed under 'Revenue-based Taxes and Benefits: Enterprise investment scheme'.
Estimates of Take-Up Reports (Northern Ireland)
Department: Social Development (Northern Ireland)
Information on the take-up of the main income-related benefits (Income Support, Pension Credit, Housing Benefit, Job-Seekers Allowance).
Family Resources Survey Reports (Northern Ireland)
Department: Social Development (Northern Ireland)
Information collected from the Family Resources Survey.
Households Below Average Income
Department: Work and Pensions
Statistics and commentary which give an insight into the standard of living of the household population in Great Britain, focusing on the lower part of income distribution.
How effective are taxes and benefits in reducing inequality in the UK
Department: Office for National Statistics
An analysis of the effectiveness of taxes and benefits in reducing household inequality between 1980 and 2009/10.
How indirect taxes can be regressive and progressive
Department: Office for National Statistics
An analysis of how UK household indirect taxes can be both regressive and progressive depending on whether the distribution of households were ranked according to their disposable income, or their expenditure.
Individual Income Series Reports (Northern Ireland)
Department: Social Development (Northern Ireland)
Information on weekly incomes by family type, source of income, age, marital status, and employment status. Analytical Services Unit have now withdrawn the Individual Income Series bulletin. For more information on this please see the following note: http://www.dsdni.gov.uk/index/stats_and_research/individual_income_series_reports.htm
Individual Savings Accounts Detailed Tables 9.7 to 9.12
Department: HM Revenue and Customs
Provides information on the distributions of savings in Individual Savings Accounts (ISA) by income, age, gender and region
Individual Savings Accounts Main Tables 9.4
Department: HM Revenue and Customs
Provides information on savings in adult and junior Individual Savings Accounts - the number of individuals subscribing to ISAs and market values of ISAs.
Individual Savings Accounts Main Tables 9.6
Department: HM Revenue and Customs
Provides information on savings in adult and junior Individual Savings Accounts - the number of individuals subscribing to ISAs and market values of ISAs.
Inheritance Tax: Analysis of Receipts
Department: HM Revenue and Customs
Provides information on Inheritance Tax (IHT) cash receipts from estates and trusts and values of non-cash settlements of IHT liabilities. Previously listed under 'Revenue-based Taxes and Benefits: Inheritance Tax'.
Inheritance Tax: Other analyses
Department: HM Revenue and Customs
Provides information on Inheritance Tax (IHT) liabilities, which types of estates pay Inheritance Tax, the use of tax reliefs and the assets left on death by these estates, their size and location, and characteristics of the deceased. Previously listed under 'Revenue-based Taxes and Benefits: Inheritance Tax'.
Low Income Dynamics
Department: Work and Pensions
Publication concentrating on low-income dynamics. It shows trends in relation to individuals who are persistently observed as living in low-income households and presents transition rates.
Measuring National Well-being
Department: Office for National Statistics
Measures of National Well-being. Drawing social and economic data from government and other organisations; painting a picture of UK society and how it changes.
Pensioners' Income Series Bulletin, Northern Ireland
Department: Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency
The bulletin contains estimates of the levels and trends of pensioners' income for Northern Ireland. The bulletin replaces the the former Pensioner Incomes Series Reports (Northern Ireland).
Personal Income Analyses: Except Sub Regional
Department: HM Revenue and Customs
Provides detailed information on individuals liable to UK income tax and their incomes, including gender, age, income source and tax distribution. Previously listed under 'Revenue-based Taxes and Benefits: Personal incomes'.
Personal Income Analyses: Other analyses, regional
Department: HM Revenue and Customs
Provides estimates for regional, administrative and political geographical areas plus measures of precision for those estimates. The estimates are for individuals liable to UK income tax and their geographical area of residence. Previously listed under 'Revenue-based Taxes and Benefits: Personal incomes'.
Personal Income Analyses: Sub-Regional Analyses
Department: HM Revenue and Customs
Provides estimates for sub-UK regional, administrative and political geographical areas plus measures of precision for those estimates. The estimates are for individuals liable to UK income tax and their geographical area of residence. Previously listed under 'Revenue-based Taxes and Benefits: Personal incomes'.
Poverty and Social Exclusion in the UK and EU
Department: Office for National Statistics
Compares the at-risk-of-poverty and social exclusion rates for the UK and EU between 2005 and 2011.
Region and Country Profiles
Department: Office for National Statistics
Region and Country Profiles provides a source of essential statistics for the regions of England and the constituent countries of the UK (Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland). The tables provide a wide range of demographic, social, environmental and economic statistics to compare the countries, regions and local authority areas. A series of profiles in words and images give key facts and figures about life and the economy in each of the regions and countries.
Relative Poverty across Scottish Local Authorities
Department: Scottish Government
New figures about the proportion of households in relative poverty in Scotland at local authority area level.
Revenue-based Taxes and Benefits: Child Trust Funds
Department: HM Revenue and Customs
Provides general information on all HMRC taxes, including tax receipts, the number of taxpayers, personal tax credits, child benefit and estimates of the cost of tax expenditures and structural relief.
Revenue-based Taxes and Benefits: Employee Share Schemes
Department: HM Revenue and Customs
Provides general information on all HMRC taxes, including tax receipts, the number of taxpayers, personal tax credits, child benefit and estimates of the cost of tax expenditures and structural relief.
Revenue-based Taxes and Benefits: Enterprise investment scheme
Department: HM Revenue and Customs
Provides general information on all HMRC taxes, including tax receipts, the number of taxpayers, personal tax credits, child benefit and estimates of the cost of tax expenditures and structural relief.
Revenue-based Taxes and Benefits: Individual Savings Accounts
Department: HM Revenue and Customs
Provides general information on all HMRC taxes, including tax receipts, the number of taxpayers, personal tax credits, child benefit and estimates of the cost of tax expenditures and structural relief.
Revenue-based Taxes and Benefits: Inheritance Tax
Department: HM Revenue and Customs
Provides general information on all HMRC taxes, including tax receipts, the number of taxpayers, personal tax credits, child benefit and estimates of the cost of tax expenditures and structural relief.
Revenue-based Taxes and Benefits: Pensions
Department: HM Revenue and Customs
Provides general information on all HMRC taxes, including tax receipts, the number of taxpayers, personal tax credits, child benefit and estimates of the cost of tax expenditures and structural relief.
Revenue-based Taxes and Benefits: Personal Equity Plans
Department: HM Revenue and Customs
Provides general information on all HMRC taxes, including tax receipts, the number of taxpayers, personal tax credits, child benefit and estimates of the cost of tax expenditures and structural relief.
Revenue-based Taxes and Benefits: Personal and stakeholder pensions by tax year
Department: HM Revenue and Customs
Provides general information on all HMRC taxes, including tax receipts, the number of taxpayers, personal tax credits, child benefit and estimates of the cost of tax expenditures and structural relief.
Revenue-based Taxes and Benefits: Personal incomes
Department: HM Revenue and Customs
Provides general information on all HMRC taxes, including tax receipts, the number of taxpayers, personal tax credits, child benefit and estimates of the cost of tax expenditures and structural relief.
Revenue-based Taxes and Benefits: Trusts
Department: HM Revenue and Customs
Provides general information on all HMRC taxes, including tax receipts, the number of taxpayers, personal tax credits, child benefit and estimates of the cost of tax expenditures and structural relief.
Revenue-based Taxes and Benefits: Venture Capital Trusts
Department: HM Revenue and Customs
Provides general information on all HMRC taxes, including tax receipts, the number of taxpayers, personal tax credits, child benefit and estimates of the cost of tax expenditures and structural relief.
Summary of Annual Contributions to Personal Pensions
Department: HM Revenue and Customs
Provides a summary of annual contributions to personal pensions by tax year (PEN 1). Previously listed under 'Revenue-based Taxes and Benefits: Pensions'.
Sustainable Development indicators
Department: Office for National Statistics
These indicators provide an overview of progress toward a sustainable economy, society and environment. Published alongside the headline and supplementary indicators are assessments of change, both short and long term.
The effect of VAT on household disposable income
Department: Office for National Statistics
This article examines the effect of VAT on average disposable income for both low income and high income households.
The effect of alcohol and tobacco duties on household disposable income
Department: Office for National Statistics
Analyses the effects of duties on alcohol and tobacco on equivalised household disposable income.
The effect of duties on petrol and diesel on household disposable income
Department: Office for National Statistics
The effect of duties on petrol and diesel on higher and lower income households.
The effects of taxes and benefits on household income
Department: Office for National Statistics
Examines how taxes and benefits redistribute income between various groups of households in the UK. The study shows where different types of households and individuals are in the income distribution and looks at the changing levels of income inequality over time.
Trusts
Department: HM Revenue and Customs
Provides general information on a number of trusts which make a Self Assessment return broken down by various categories and income of trusts by type of trust. Previously listed under 'Revenue-based Taxes and Benefits: Trusts'.
Urban Rural Reports (Northern Ireland)
Department: Social Development (Northern Ireland)
Looks at data from the Family Resources Survey classified by urban/rural regions.
Venture Capital Trusts - Distribution of Numbers
Department: HM Revenue and Customs
Provides information on the number of investors and the amounts invested reported on investors' Self Assessment tax returns. Previously listed under 'Revenue-based Taxes and Benefits: Venture Capital Trusts'.
Venture Capital Trusts - Number of Trusts
Department: HM Revenue and Customs
Provides information on the number of Venture Capital Trusts and the amount of investment raised from investors for onward investment into high-risk small companies (Official Statistics). Previously listed under 'Revenue-based Taxes and Benefits: Venture Capital Trusts'.
Wealth and Assets (experimental)
Department: Office for National Statistics
A longitudinal survey that collects information about the economic well being of households and individuals including their assets and debts, pension provision, how wealth is distributed and factors that may affect financial planning.
Wealth in Great Britain
Department: Office for National Statistics
Results from the Wealth and Assets Survey.
Wealth in Great Britain Wave 2
Department: Office for National Statistics
Main results from the Wealth and Assets Survey incorporating results from the second wave of the survey.
Wealth in Great Britain Wave 3
Department: Office for National Statistics
Main results from the Wealth and Assets Survey incorporating results from the third wave of the survey.

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Overview

Personal income

Personal income is the amount of money received by individuals from all sources. Income includes wages and salaries as well as amounts received from state pensions and benefits, tax credits, private pensions and investments. Household income, the total personal income of household members, is a widely used indicator of living standards.

The income distribution is a measure of inequality of living standards, and income data are also used to measure poverty. Special analyses of income data are also produced for subgroups of the population such as pensioners and households below average income.

Personal wealth

Personal wealth is the value of an individual’s assets, including property, financial, physical and pension assets. Net personal wealth is calculated by subtracting liabilities such as outstanding mortgages, loans and other debt.

Pension wealth includes state and private pensions. Private pension assets are rights built up as a result of contributing to occupational or personal pension schemes. Because of the complexity of producing estimates, pension wealth is sometimes excluded from wealth calculations.

Income is a flow or rate of change over a period of time while wealth is a stock or the total accumulation at a point in time.

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Technical Data

Sources of income and wealth data

Family Resources Survey

The FRS is an annual survey of between 24,000 (GB) and 29,000 (UK) households which began in 1994/95. The datasets are available from the Data Archive at Essex University in a number of different formats. As well as producing information on personal income, the FRS is also used to generate statistics on specific population groups such as pensioners and households below average income, see below. More information can be found on the DWP website.

Pensioners’ Income Series

Estimates and interpretation of trends in the levels and sources of pensioners' incomes. The results are based on data from the Family Resources Survey. More information can be found on the DWP website.

Households Below Average Income (HBAI)

Statistics and commentary which give an insight into the standard of living of the household population in the UK. HBAI uses household disposable incomes, adjusted for household size and formation, before and after housing costs. HBAI reports on changes in numbers of people in low-income households, the relative risks of different groups experiencing low incomes. It also shows the formation of the low-income population and changes in the distribution of disposable income. More information can be found on the DWP website.

Low income dynamics

This statistical paper is based upon results from the British Household Panel Survey (BHPS) for the period 1991 to 2005. It analyses the movements around the income distribution by individuals and examines the extent to which individuals persistently experience low income. The report also contains tables showing the likelihood for individuals, of making a transition either into or out of low income, and identifies events and characteristics which are associated with the transitions. More information can be found on the DWP website.

The General Household Survey (GHS)

A multi-purpose annual sample survey on approximately 9,000 households. Data are collected on five core topics, namely education, employment, health, housing, and population and family information. Other areas such as leisure, household burglary, smoking and drinking are covered periodically. Data cover Great Britain with the Continuous Household Survey covering Northern Ireland. More information can be found on the National Statistics website.

Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings

The main source for information on the distribution of earnings for the UK. It also collects information on pension contributions. More information can be found on the National Statistics website.

Survey of Personal Incomes

A sample survey based on information held by HM Revenue & Customs (HMRC) tax offices on people who could be liable to UK tax. It is carried out annually and covers the income assessable for tax in each tax year. More information can be found on the HMRC website.

Wealth and Assets Survey

The Wealth and Assets Survey (WAS) is a new survey that collects information about the economic wellbeing of households and individuals. Households in the survey are followed up to find out how their wealth and assets varies over time. The survey includes assets and debts, pension provision, how wealth is distributed and factors that may affect financial planning. The survey covers 32,000 households over a two-year period within Great Britain. More information can be found on the National Statistics website.

Pension Trends

Pension Trends is a compendium publication that brings together different sources of data that relate to pensions. It looks at both economic and social factors that influence changes in pension provision and pension income over time. Pension Trends includes chapters on pensioner incomes, non-pension and pension wealth. More information can be found on the National Statistics website.

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Glossary

  • Current account

    This includes all bank and building society current accounts, which are used for day-to-day transactions with a cheque book, bank card or both. Any interest will normally be minimal.

  • Employee shares

    Includes share options, where the employee is offered an option to buy shares in the company at a fixed price, or below market price at the time of purchase. There are also Sharesave schemes, savings related share option schemes and company share option plans (CSOP). Does not include shares in an individual’s own business, which is covered in the business assets section.

  • Group personal pension

    A money purchases scheme, usually arranged by an employer, although it is not obligatory for the employer to contribute to the scheme.

  • Investments

    Interest and dividends received on savings and investments.

  • Life insurance or endowment policies

    An endowment policy is a fixed-term life assurance policy in which provision is made for premiums to pay for life cover plus a savings and investment element. The policy pays out a sum of money on the death of the life assured or at a specified date if the life assured survives the term. Includes ‘with-profits’ policies such as those offered by life assurance companies and friendly societies, which have a life insurance element, and endowments not linked to the current property. Does not include endowments linked to the mortgage on the household’s main residence.

  • National Savings and Investments

    Includes National Savings certificates, premium bonds or other National Savings and Investment products. For example, fixed-interest savings certificates, index-linked savings certificates, pensioners guaranteed income bonds, fixed-rate savings bonds, guaranteed equity bonds, capital bonds and income bonds.

  • Occupational hybrid pension schemes

    Combines elements of money purchase and salary-related schemes.

  • Occupational money purchase pension schemes

    Also called defined contribution, where the benefits are dependent on contributions to, and the growth of, the pension fund.

  • Occupational pension

    An occupational pension scheme is an arrangement an employer makes to give their employees a pension when they retire. Employees may become a member of an employer's pension scheme on a voluntary basis. Occupational pension schemes can be contracted in to, or out of, the State Second Pension.

  • Occupational salary related pension schemes

    Also called defined benefit. This is where an employee’s benefits are related to the number of years’ service and salary, with the employer.

  • Other shares

    Ordinary or preference shares in UK or overseas companies directly owned by the respondent.

  • Pension schemes

    There are five main types of pension scheme available. They are Occupational Money Purchase Schemes, Occupational Salary-Related Schemes and Occupational Hybrid Schemes. Private personal or stakeholder pensions and group personal or stakeholder pensions are also available.

  • Personal pension

    This is provided through a contract between an individual and the pension provider. The pension which is produced will be based upon the level of contributions, investment returns and annuity rates. A personal pension can be either employer provided (see group personal pension) or privately purchased (see private pension).

  • Private pension (non-state)

    This includes occupational pensions (also known as work or company pensions) and personal pensions (including stakeholder pensions). People can have several different non-state pensions at once, but they may not be allowed to make contributions to all of them.

  • Private personal or stakeholder pensions

    Both of these are money purchase schemes taken out by individuals, usually by those who are self-employed.

  • Savings or deposit accounts

    Includes savings or deposit accounts at a bank, building society or elsewhere. They include Easy Access, Notice accounts, Monthly Interest accounts, All-in-one or Offset accounts (in credit) and Term accounts. It also includes National Savings accounts and those accounts held with telephone or Internet banks or a Credit Union.

  • Self-employed income

    This is the total amount of income received from self-employment gross of tax and national insurance payments, based on profits where the individual considers themselves as running a business or on estimated earnings/drawings. Excludes any profit due to partners in the business. Any losses are deducted.

  • Stakeholder pension (SHP)

    Stakeholder pensions were introduced in April 2001. They enable those without earnings, such as non-earning partners, carers, pensioners and students, to pay into a pension scheme. Almost everybody up to the age of 75 may take out a stakeholder pension and it is not necessary to make regular contributions

  • State Second Pension (S2P)

    The successor, from 6 April 2002, to the State Earnings-Related Pension Scheme (SERPS). It currently provides an earnings-related pension based on National Insurance contributions, in addition to the Basic State Pension.

  • Valuables and collectibles

    These are items defined by the respondent as being valuable based on their market value (if known), or their insurance value. Includes works of art, antiques, jewellery. Respondents may also include a collection of cars not in general use (such as, vintage cars), or animals with a commercial value. Items can be owned by any member of the household and includes those items kept elsewhere. For example, in a safe deposit box.

  • Value of household goods

    The valuation is defined by the respondent based on the replacement value of all goods in the main residence, including appliances, electronic equipment, furniture, and clothing. Vehicles (including bicycles) and valuables already accounted for, are not included in the valuation.

  • Vehicles

    Includes cars, vans and motorbikes for general use. Does not include lease vehicles and company vehicles.

  • Wages and salaries

    Currently working as an employee, income from wages and salaries is equal to gross pay before any deductions. Less any refunds of income tax or for items of household expenditure. Less any motoring and mileage expenses or Statutory Sick Pay or Statutory Maternity Pay. Plus bonuses received over the last 12 months (converted to a weekly amount) and any children's earnings from part-time jobs.

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Contact Details

For statistical enquiries about this topic, please contact:

Head of the Household Income and Expenditure Branch

Email: hie@ons.gsi.gov.uk

Telephone: +44 (0)16 3345 5951

Office for National Statistics Cardiff Road Newport NP10 8XG

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