An Overview of Sexual Offending in England & Wales
Presents statistics on sexual offending in England and Wales at key points through the Criminal Justice System . This statistical bulletin has been compiled jointly by the Ministry of Justice, Home Office, and Office for National Statistics.
Atlas of Deprivation: England
Department: Office for National Statistics
The Indices of Multiple Deprivation for England combine a number of areas, chosen to cover a range of economic, social and housing issues into a single deprivation score for each Lower Layer Super Output Area in England. The Atlas of Deprivation allows a map visualisation of the overall LSOA deprivation score (rank) and the score (rank) for each of the seven domains by local authority.
Crime in England and Wales: Annual report
Department: Home Office
Presents the financial year crime statistics from the British Crime Survey and police recorded crime.
Crime in England and Wales: Supplementary Volume 2
Department: Home Office
Detailed analysis of police recorded homicides and firearms offences.
Experience of Sexual Violence and Abuse: Findings from the Northern Ireland Crime Survey
Department: Justice (Northern Ireland)
Data derived from 'self completed' victim forms by respondents to Northern Ireland Crime Survey - a representative , personal interview survey of the experiences and perceptions of crime throughout Northern Ireland. This publication has now been retired: no future editions will be published.
Homicide in Scotland
Department: Scottish Government
This bulletin presents statistics on crimes of homicide recorded by the police in Scotland. It covers all cases of murder and culpable homicide, but excludes cases of causing death by dangerous or reckless driving.
Police Service of Northern Ireland Annual Statistics: Security and Terrorism in Northern Ireland
Department: Police Service of Northern Ireland (PSNI)
Financial Year statistics on the Security Situation in Northern Ireland.
Statistics on Deaths Reported to Coroners, England and Wales
The annual release presents statistics on the work of coroners in England and Wales. Data are obtained from manual statistical returns submitted by all coroners under the Coroners Act 1988. The release presents figures on deaths reported to coroners, inquests and post-mortems held, and finds reported to coroners under treasure legislation.
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Police recorded violent crime
Violence against the person, sexual offences and robbery. Violence against the person contains the full spectrum of assaults, from pushing and shoving (no physical harm) to murder. Important measure of local activity and a source of operational information to help identify and address local crime problems.
British Crime Survey (BCS) Violence
The BCS provides a better reflection of the true extend of violent crime than police recorded statistics because the survey includes crimes that are not reported to or recorded by the police. It also provides more robust trends in violent crime, enabling better comparisons over time for the types of violence that it routinely covers. The BCS is not affected by changes in reporting, police recording and local policing activity, and has been measured in a consistent way since the survey began in 1981.
British Crime Survey (Self-completion Module)
A separate collection from the main recorded crime collection, containing more detailed individual record data on each homicide in England and Wales. Figures are published annually in Homicides, Firearm offences and Intimate Violence: Supplementary Volume 2 to Crime in England and Wales.
Supplementary recorded crime collection containing more detailed individual record data on each recorded offence involving the use of a firearm. Final figures are published annually in the Homicides, Firearm offences and Intimate Violence: Supplementary Volume 2 to Crime in England and Wales, with provisional quarterly figures in Quarterly Updates.
Supplementary recorded crime collection containing aggregate data from 2007/08 on selected violent and sexual offences involving the use of a knife or sharp instrument. Published in both Crime in England and Wales and Quarterly Updates.
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Violence against the person
Police recorded violence against the person is separated into two subcategories:
violence against the person with injury (including homicide, attempted murder, grevious bodily harm (both with and without intent) and actual bodily harm)
violence against the person without injury (including threats to kill, assault without injury and harassment)
The above also include attempts and threats to commit those offences.
The British Crime Survey (BCS) covers a range of violent offences, classified into the groups of robbery, wounding, assault with minor injury and assault with no injury.
Police recorded sexual offences cover different types of unlawful sexual activity, including rape and sexual assault. Some of the offences do not necessarily involve violence: unlawful sexual intercourse with a person under 16 or with a mental disorder, for example. There are two subcategories:
most serious sexual crime (including rapes, sexual assaults, and sexual activity with children)
other sexual offences (including soliciting, exploitation of prostitution, and other unlawful sexual activity)
Because of the small numbers of sexual offences picked up by face-to-face BCS interviews, results are not routinely reported. However, since 2004/05 the BCS has included a self-completion module which asks respondents their experiences of domestic abuse, sexual assault and stalking. This method produces more reliable figures than are obtained form face-to-face interviews and includes experiences of victims who did not report the incident to the police.
The BCS reports on two main categories of sexual assault:
- Serious sexual assault (including rape, assault by penetration and attempts of both)
- Less serious sexual assault (including indecent exposure, sexual touching and sexual threats).
Police recorded robberies cover a wide range of seriousness from armed bank robberies to muggings for mobile phones or small amounts of money.
The BCS covers robberies against adults living in private households. However, as one of the rarer crimes, any BCS figures relating to robbery should be treated with caution because of the low number of victims involved.
BCS violence type
Violent crime as measured by the BCS can alternatively be divided into four types, broadly based on the relationship between the victim and offender:
domestic violence – violent incidents committed by partners, ex-partners, other relatives or other household members
stranger violence – violent incidents in which the victim did not have any information about the offender(s), or did not know and had never seen the offender(s) before
acquaintance violence – violent incidents in which the victim knew one or more of the offenders, at least by sight
mugging – robbery, attempted robbery, and snatch theft from the person (snatch theft is not included in the overall violence measure)
Trends in police recorded violent crime
Trends in police recorded violent crime can be very difficult to interpret, as they have been distorted by a number of factors. It is important to consider the following issues when interpreting trends:
police recorded crime data are subject to changes in the levels of public reporting of incidents
local policing activity and priorities affect the levels of reported and recorded violent crime
police recorded crime data are subject to changes in police recording practices, including those relating to national counting rules and crime recording standards
The National Crime Recording Standard (NCRS), introduced in April 2002, resulted in increased recording of violent and sexual crimes particularly for less serious offences, as well as for some other offences. There was an estimated NCRS effect of 23 per cent on violence against the person offences in the first 12 months of implementation, with further effects in subsequent years. Therefore it is not possible to accurately assess trends using police recorded figures across this recording change.
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